With the new and popular trend about owning and living small, every Homestead owner must consider how to deal with using a toilet and living with less. This should explain how a Composting Toilet works, the different types available, and how to maintain it and get the best efficiency from its use.
Composting Toilets are a dry toilet that treats human waste by using an aerobic process with no water or very small volumes of water for “composting” or managed decomposition. We find them in our national parks and hiking trails.
Composting toilet systems normally mix human waste with raw sawdust, coconut coir, or organic peat moss which support aerobic processing, absorbs liquids, and mitigate odors from the toilet. Aerobic processing is simply the availability of oxygen to speed the decomposition process. Anaerobic is a lack of oxygen and slower decomposition found in wet sewage treatment systems such as septic tanks. This method is widely used by Tiny House dwellers, unless they have opted for conventional plumbing.
Slow composting or “ moldering” toilets are used in moderate or seasonal use areas. “Moldering” is achieved by low temperatures, humidity, in which the temperatures aren’t high enough to destroy bacteria and pathogens. This method is also known as “cold composting” which rely on long retention times for reduction of the waste. Combining with readily available Red Wiggler worms have been found to speed up the decomposition process known as Vermicomposting.
Many manufactured self contained systems on the market may contain chambers to separate human waste. Some are equipped with fans for aeration and optional features such as heating elements.This helps in speeding up the decomposition process and maintain temperature. Heat speeds up decomposition, which is why many composting toilets should be placed inside. Generally, composting or decomposition work faster when temperatures are 55 degrees and above. Many systems on the market also use additives, or what is known as “bulking agents”. They are absorbent carbon materials to absorb liquid, create air pockets between layers for better processing, and to create an odor barrier.
Maintaining your toilet-
Many brands on the market today provide different provisions for emptying the finished or composted product. This usually depends on the speed of the decomposition process and the capacity of the composting toilet. These can range from a few months (hot composting) or a few years (cold composting). Many units separate the solids from the liquid waste, however, you shouldn’t allow “bulking” agents to become too wet. Simply add more peat moss, raw sawdust, or coconut coir, to thicken it up. It is highly recommended not to use Miracle Gro Peat moss in your composting toilet since it contains additives. It is best to use organic as much as possible.
Properly managed units which produce 10 percent of composted material is suitable for soil amendments for agriculture, however, be sure to check with your local health departments as some localities have strict regulations on doing this.
Finally, when cleaning your composting toilet a simple environmentally friendly solution of water and vinegar will clean it up nicely.